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Special Needs Transportation Handbook

Text Box:

Special
Needs
Transportation
Handbook

By Ray Turner, Ed. D.

Text Box:


Table of Contents

Chapter One:
Parents and Special Needs Student Riders

Student Bus Passengers with Disabilities........................................................................... 2
The Difference between a Disability and a Handicap....................................................... 2
Talking About or with Students with Disabilities............................................................... 2
Student Riders with Disabilities.............................................................................................. 4
Students with Autism............................................................................................................... 4
Characteristics of Autism......................................................................................................... 4
Failure to Respond to Normal Surroundings...................................................................... 4
Failure to Respond to Love and affection5
Engaging in Repetitious or Stereotypic Behaviors........................................................... 5
Self-Abusive When Under Stress........................................................................................... 6
Tantrums and Self-Multilating Behavior............................................................................... 6
Deaf-Blind (Dual Sensory Impairment) ................................................................................ 8
Orienting Dual Sensory Impairment (DSI) Students.......................................................... 8
Personal Distress Signals........................................................................................................ 8
Using Effective Greetings......................................................................................................... 8
Appropriate Touch..................................................................................................................... 9
'OK or Not OK' Signals.............................................................................................................. 9
Seating Assignments................................................................................................................ 9
Changing Seating Assignments.......................................................................................... 10
Elbow Touch Method.............................................................................................................. 10
Emotionally Disturbed............................................................................................................ 11
Serious Emotional Disturbance........................................................................................... 11
Childhood Schizophrenia...................................................................................................... 11
Acting-Out Students................................................................................................................ 12
Characteristics of Students with Behavior Disorders.................................................... 12
Withdrawn Students................................................................................................................ 14
Special Needs or Regular Bus Service? ........................................................................... 14
Special Needs Bus Placement Means Fewer Incident Reports? ............................... 14
Behavior Incident Reports and Bus Suspensions/Revocations................................. 15
Behavior Management Guidelines for the Special Needs Bus.................................... 15
Behavior Management Plans (BMPs) ................................................................................ 16
Importance of Assigned Seats.............................................................................................. 17
Hearing Impaired...................................................................................................................... 17
Conductive Hearing Loss..................................................17
Sensorineural or "Nerve" Hearing Loss............................................................................ 17
Degrees of Hearing Loss....................................................................................................... 18
Mild Hearing Loss.................................................................................................................... 18
Moderate Hearing Loss.......................................................................................................... 18
Severe to Profound Hearing Loss....................................................................................... 19
Speech Reading or Sign(ed) Language............................................................................. 19
District Policy for Learning/Using American Sign Language....................................... 21
Signing Exact English (SEE) ................................................................................................ 21
Bus Supported Guidelines for the Hearing Impaired...................................................... 21
Hearing Aids and Special Needs Bus Riders................................................................... 23
Types of Hearing Aids............................................................................................................. 23
One Hearing Aid or Two? ...................................................................................................... 24
Assistive Listening Devices.................................................................................................. 24
Telephone Relay Service (TRS) ........................................................................................... 24
Making Calls to TTY Parents................................................................................................. 25
Receiving Calls from TTY Parents....................................................................................... 25
Some Helpful Teletypewriter (TTY) Terms......................................................................... 26
Learning Disabled.................................................................................................................... 26
An Invisible and Personal Disability.................................................................................... 26
Learning Disabilities Symptoms ......................................................................................... 27
Impaired Social and/or Personal Judgements................................................................. 27
Difficulty in getting organized............................................................................................... 27
Boarding the Vehicle & Negotiating the Stairwell............................................................ 27
Easily Distracted....................................................................................................................... 28
Impaired Decision-Making Skills.......................................................................................... 28
Remembering Things in Proper Order............................................................................... 28
Forgetting Personal Items on the School Bus................................................................. 28
Inability to Process or Retrieve Information Quickly....................................................... 28
Repeated in Different Formats to Be Understood........................................................... 28
Rehearse with the Student Until They Get It Right.......................................................... 29
Allow Successful Practice to be Repeated........................................................................ 29
Impulse Behavior Cannot Be Predicted or Controlled................................................... 29
Forgetting Bus Behavior Rules............................................................................................ 29
Speaking Inappropriately about Unrelated Matters........................................................ 29
Legal Definition of Learning Disabilities............................................................................ 30
Bus Riders with Attention Deficit Disorders (ADD) ........................................................ 30
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ............................................................. 30
Mentally Retarded.................................................................................................................... 31
Mildly Retarded Students....................................................................................................... 31
Moderate to Severely Retarded Individuals...................................................................... 32
Severe to Profoundly Retarded Students.......................................................................... 32
Hydrocephaly in Special Needs Students......................................................................... 32
Cerebral Palsy (CP) In Special Needs Students............................................................... 33Spasticity.................................................................................................................................... 33
Athetosis..................................................................................................................................... 34
Ataxia........................................................................................................................................... 34
Friedreich's Ataxia................................................................................................................... 35
Bus Management Techniques for Severe/Profoundly Retarded Students.............. 35
Multiply Disabled...................................................................................................................... 36
High- or Low-Functioning Students with Multiple Disabilities..................................... 36
Lack Self-Help Skills................................................................................................................ 36
Have No Effective Communication with Driver Team..................................................... 36
Some May Not Be Able to Talk, Gesture or Talk Meaningfully..................................... 36
No Ttypical Responses to Dangerous, Emergency or Crisis Situations.................. 37
Medically Fragile-Technology Assisted............................................................................. 38
Students with Orthopedic Impairments.............................................................................. 38
Walker Users as School Bus Passengers......................................................................... 38
Scoliosis..................................................................................................................................... 39
Clubfoot...................................................................................................................................... 40
Prostheses or Orthoses? ...................................................................................................... 40
Amputees................................................................................................................................... 41
Students with Other Health Impairments........................................................................... 41
Students with Special Health Care Needs......................................................................... 41
Chronic Health Impairments.................................................................................................. 42
Cystic Fibrosis.......................................................................................................................... 43
Diabetes (Diabetes Mellitus) ................................................................................................. 43
Juvenile Diabetes (Type I) ..................................................................................................... 44
Maturity-Onset Diabetes (Type II) ........................................................................................ 44
High or Low Blood Sugars.................................................................................................... 44
Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) ...................................................................................... 44
Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) .................................................................................... 45
Phenylketonuria (PKU) .......................................................................................................... 45
Fatigue (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome)45
Kidney Disease......................................................................................................................... 45
Asthma........................................................................................................................................ 46
Epilepsy (Seizures or Convulsions) ................................................................................... 46
Absence Seizure (Petit Mal) .................................................................................................. 47
Generalized Tonic-Clonic (Grand Mal) ............................................................................... 47
Complex Partial Seizure (Psychomotor) ........................................................................... 47
Arthritis in Children.................................................................................................................. 47
Juvenile Arthritis....................................................................................................................... 47
Rheumatoid Arthritis............................................................................................................... 47
Osteoarthritis............................................................................................................................. 48
Scleroderma.............................................................................................................................. 48
Lupus (Lupus Erythematosus) ............................................................................................ 48
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) ........................................................................................................... 48
Neurologically Impaired.......................................................................................................... 49
Neurofibromatosis (The Elephant-Man Syndrome) ....................................................... 49
Tuberous Sclerosis................................................................................................................. 50
Tourette Syndrome (TS) ........................................................................................................ 50
Prader-Willi Syndrome............................................................................................................ 50
Spina Bifida................................................................................................................................ 51
Spina Bifida Occulta................................................................................................................ 51
Meningocele.............................................................................................................................. 51
Myelomeningocele................................................................................................................... 51
Head Injuries.............................................................................................................................. 52
Physical Symptoms................................................................................................................. 52
Cognitive Symptoms............................................................................................................... 52
Psychosocial Symptoms....................................................................................................... 52
Neuromuscular Diseases....................................................................................................... 52
Myasthenia Gravis.................................................................................................................... 53
Muscular Dystrophy................................................................................................................ 53
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) .............................................................................. 53
Facio-Scapulo Humeral Dystrophy..................................................................................... 53
Myotonic Dystrophy................................................................................................................ 53
Lou Gehrig's Disease (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/ALS) ....................................... 54
Speech Impaired....................................................................................................................... 54
Guidelines for Effective Interaction on the School Bus................................................. 54
Student Bus Riders with Stroke or Aphasia..................................................................... 55
Student Bus Riders Unable To Speak................................................................................ 56
Students with Traumatic Brain Injury................................................................................. 56
Visually Impaired...................................................................................................................... 57
Service Animals (Seeing-Eye Dogs) ................................................................................... 58
Long Cane Users..................................................................................................................... 60
High-tech Equipment.............................................................................................................. 61
Low-tech Equipment............................................................................................................... 61
Special Education Transportation Service Accessibility............................................... 63
Parental Guidelines for Receiving Special Needs Transportation.............................. 63
Service to Special Education Students on Regular Buses........................................... 67
Summary.................................................................................................................................... 68
Additional Resources.............................................................................................................. 69

 

Chapter Two:
The Special Needs Driver--The Driving Team Leader

Professional School Bus Drivers......................................................................................... 72
Special Needs Drivers............................................................................................................. 72
Maintain Appropriate Student Bus Behavior.................................................................... 74
Maintain Report Serious Behavioral Infractions.............................................................. 74
Attend Parent Conferences When Requested................................................................. 74
Follow Assigned Special Needs Bus Routes................................................................... 74
Adhere to Established Bus Service Schedules............................................................... 76
Inspect the Bus and All On-Board Equipment.................................................................. 76
Prepare and Submit Bus Repair or Equipment Work Orders....................................... 77
Communicate with All in a Professional Manner............................................................. 77
Communicating with Parents................................................................................................ 77
Communicating with Caregivers.......................................................................................... 77
Communicating with Siblings............................................................................................... 78
Communicating with Special Education Building Personnel...................................... 78
Keep Assigned Bus Clean and Fueled............................................................................... 78
Operate Two-Radio or Cellular Phones Effectively and Safely.................................... 79
Provide CPR and First Aid to Anyone in Need................................................................. 79
Maintain Family Educational Rights & Privacy................................................................. 79
Special Needs Driver Training.............................................................................................. 81
Preservice Training.................................................................................................................. 81
School Bus Driving Fundamentals..................................................................................... 82
Defensive Driving Techniques............................................................................................. 82
Impact of Disabilities on Family Human Relations.......................................................... 82
State and Federal Laws & Rules Pertaining to School Buses..................................... 83
School District Policies & Procedures............................................................................... 83
Bus Stop Procedures.............................................................................................................. 83
Railroad Grade Crossing Procedures................................................................................ 83
Accident and Emergency Procedures................................................................................ 83
First Aid and CPR..................................................................................................................... 83
Blood Borne Pathogens and Body Fluid Cleanup Procedures.................................. 83
Inservice Special Needs Driver Training............................................................................ 83
Current Safety Issues and Concerns.................................................................................. 84
Local District Issues................................................................................................................ 85
Skills or Competencies Selected For Inservice Training............................................... 85
Demonstrating Emotional Support...................................................................................... 85
Understanding Special Needs Driver Role & Responsibilities.................................... 85
Operating Student Personal Equipment Brought on Board......................................... 85
Operating the Special Needs Bus........................................................................................ 85
Demonstrating Physical Performance Abilities & Skills      85
Reaching the Adult Learner................................................................................................... 86
Mentoring Special Needs Drivers........................................................................................ 87
Special Needs Driver Learning Styles................................................................................ 88
Training Outside the Traditional Classroom..................................................................... 88
Trainers Include Other School District Specialists.......................................................... 88
The Training Coordinator for Transportation................................................................... 89
Current Weather Conditions and Driving Techniques................................................... 90
Area Road Construction Projects........................................................................................ 90
Driver-Student Relations and Conflict Resolution.......................................................... 90
Alcohol and Drug Use Policy Inservice.............................................................................. 90
Summary.................................................................................................................................... 95
Addition Resources................................................................................................................. 96

Chapter Three:
The Special Needs School Bus Team

Driver and Assistant Team Work.......................................................................................... 98
Special Needs Bus Assistant................................................................................................ 98
Insuring Students on the Bus Are Safe.............................................................................. 98
Providing Al Necessary Student Assistance.................................................................... 98
Providing Support & Instruction to Students................................................................... 98
Monitoring students Throughout Their Bus Ride........................................................... 99
Seating & Reseating Passengers during the Bus Ride................................................. 99
Communicating with the Driver, School Personnel & Parents.................................... 99
Keeping Accurate & Updated Student Seating Charts.................................................. 99
Implementing Student Bus Behavior Management Programs..................................... 99
Reporting to the Building Principal..................................................................................... 99
Reporting All Student Injuries & Illnesses......................................................................... 99
Completing Behavioral Incident Reports........................................................................... 99
Meeting in Conference with Parents & Special Education Personnel....................... 99
Operating All Bus Adaptive Equipment............................................................................ 100
Storing and Securing All Student Personal Equipment.............................................. 100
Providing CPR & First Aid................................................................................................... 100
Following Established Procedures................................................................................... 100
Cautioning Parents Not to Release Students If They Are Sick.................................. 100
Observing the Health of Each Child on the bus............................................................. 101
Completing a Walk-Through after Each Bus Run......................................................... 101
Performing a Complete Post-Trip Bus Inspection........................................................ 101
Special Needs Driver Team Development....................................................................... 101
Driver Team Commitment.................................................................................................... 101
Driver Team Trust.................................................................................................................. 101
Driver Team Purpose............................................................................................................ 102
Driver Team Communication.............................................................................................. 102
Involvement............................................................................................................................. 102
Purpose/Process Orientation............................................................................................. 103
Using Responsible Caution................................................................................................ 103
Taking Risks............................................................................................................................ 104
Getting involved..................................................................................................................... 105
Participating in the Driver Team......................................................................................... 105
Driver Team Responsibilities.............................................................................................. 105
Substitute Drivers and Assistants..................................................................................... 105
Not Acquainted with Special Needs Passengers.......................................................... 106
Not Acquainted with the Route or Schedule.................................................................. 106
Not Familiar with Working with the Bus Assistant........................................................ 106
Students May Act Differently toward New Substitute Drivers.................................... 106
Before the School Year Begins.......................................................................................... 106
Communication with Parents............................................................................................. 107
Driver-Only Communication with Parents....................................................................... 107
Assistant-Only Communication With Parents................................................................ 108
Out-of-District Special Needs Bus Service...................................................................... 109
Out-of-Attendance Area Special Needs Bus Service.................................................... 110
No-Show Student Riders..................................................................................................... 111
Permanent or Temporary Route Changes...................................................................... 112
Updating Route Sheets........................................................................................................ 112
Working Parental Telephone Numbers............................................................................ 113
Route Pickup and Drop-Off Windows.............................................................................. 113
Initial Home Visit..................................................................................................................... 114
Private Lane Service Restrictions..................................................................................... 114
Pickup/Drop-Off Changes during Adverse Weather Conditions............................... 115
Heavy Rain Leading to Flooded Streets.......................................................................... 115
Flooded Sidewalks Change Pickup or Drop-Off Methods.......................................... 115
Icy or Snow-Bound Sidewalks May Require No Pickup Service.............................. 115
Reporting Neighborhood Street & Sidewalk Hazards................................................. 116
Reporting Potholes in Streets and at Addresses.......................................................... 116
Reporting Damaged/Missing Street Lights, Traffic Controls Signals...................... 116
Reporting Dead Animals in the Street.............................................................................. 116
Reporting Vegetation That Obstructs Vision or Overhangs Streets........................ 116
Caregiver Alternate Site Visits............................................................................................ 117
Day Care Center and School Bus Transfers.................................................................. 117
Private Day Care vs. Public School Bus Service........................................................... 118
Additional Special Needs Team Member Training........................................................ 119
On Every School Day1............................................................................................................ 19
Driver Safety Tips for Employee Break Rooms1............................................................. 20
Driver Safety Tips for Employee Bus Parking Lots...................................................... 120
Employee Identification Badges........................................................................................ 121
Pre-Trip Inspection Checklist............................................................................................. 121
Fire Extinguisher.................................................................................................................... 121
Body Fluids Kit....................................................................................................................... 121
First Aid Kit.............................................................................................................................. 122
Brakes ...................................................................................................................................... 122
Bus Light Switches............................................................................................................... 122
Seat Belt Cutter....................................................................................................................... 122
Wheel chocks.......................................................................................................................... 122
Reflective Triangles............................................................................................................... 122
Radio/Cellular Phone............................................................................................................ 123
Student Pickup Procedures................................................................................................ 123
Early Bus Arrival at School.................................................................................................. 123
Late Bus Arrival at Home..................................................................................................... 123
Late Student Boarding from Home................................................................................... 124
Communication with Parents at the Pickup Site........................................................... 124
Seat Belt Securement........................................................................................................... 124
During the Bus Ride.............................................................................................................. 125
Seatbelt Options for Special Needs Students................................................................ 125
Bus Close-Down.................................................................................................................... 125
Summary.................................................................................................................................. 126
Additional Resources........................................................................................................... 126

Chapter Four:
The Lift Bus and Students Using Mobility Aids

Lift-Equipped Regular Bus.................................................................................................. 128
Lift-Equipped Special Needs Bus...................................................................................... 129
Rear-Lift Equipped Buses................................................................................................... 129
Front-Lift Equipped Buses.................................................................................................. 129
Wheelchair Securement Orientation................................................................................. 130
Wider Aisles and Lift-Equipped Buses............................................................................. 130
Space Requirements for Wheelchairs.............................................................................. 130
Seating and Lift-Equipped Buses...................................................................................... 131
Seat Belts on Special Needs Buses.................................................................................. 131
Seat Belts vs. Physical Restraint Systems...................................................................... 132
Special Needs Student Medical Authorization to Use Seat Belts............................. 133
Personal Equipment Stowage on the Special Needs Bus.......................................... 134
Parental Guidelines for Lift Bus Service.......................................................................... 134
Lift Bus Student Guidelines................................................................................................ 134
Be ready at home for the ride to school........................................................................... 135
Be ready at school for the ride home................................................................................ 135
Necessary Personal Equipment........................................................................................ 135
Essential Student Supplies on Board the Bus............................................................... 136
Supplies.................................................................................................................................... 136
Books........................................................................................................................................ 136
Transporting Medicines on the Bus.................................................................................. 136
Personal Safety in the School Loading Zone................................................................. 137
Demonstrate Care for Personal Safety in the School Loading Zone....................... 137
Moving behind or between Buses..................................................................................... 137
Path of Travel.......................................................................................................................... 138
Pedestrian Safety Requirements at the School Loading Zone.................................. 138
Uniform Lift Bus Procedures.............................................................................................. 139
Wheelchair Occupant Restraint......................................................................................... 139
Wheelchair Racing or Horseplay....................................................................................... 140
Lift Platform as a Walkway Obstruction........................................................................... 141
Lift Driver Teams or Drivers Alone?.................................................................................. 141
Personal Attendants/Nurses on the Lift Bus.................................................................. 151
Other Lift Bus Issues............................................................................................................. 152
Emergency Lift Operation.................................................................................................... 153
Lift Platform Barriers............................................................................................................. 153
Lift Platform Surfacing.......................................................................................................... 154
Manual or Powered Wheelchair Users............................................................................. 155
Transporting Empty Wheelchairs...................................................................................... 155
Wheelchair Battery Safety................................................................................................... 155
Top-Heavy Wheelchairs....................................................................................................... 156
Heavy Wheelchair/Occupant Units.................................................................................... 156
Wheelchairs with Weak or Restricted Frame Tiedown Areas.................................... 157
Low Backrests on Wheelchairs......................................................................................... 157
Wheelchair Selection and Repair....................................................................................... 157
Wheelchairs--Front or All-Wheel Locks............................................................................ 158
Strollers on the Lift Bus........................................................................................................ 158
Scooters or Three-Wheeled Chairs................................................................................... 158
Walkers and the Lift Bus...................................................................................................... 158
Walker User Independence................................................................................................. 159
Walker Use on the Bus......................................................................................................... 160
Stairwell Entry with Walkers................................................................................................ 160
Stairwell Exit with Walkers................................................................................................... 160
Crutches or Canes................................................................................................................. 161
Leg Brace or Leg Prosthesis Users.................................................................................. 161
Other Student Conditions.................................................................................................... 162
Parents and Damaged Equipment Replacement.......................................................... 162
Lift Bus Field Trips and Other Extracurricular Activities............................................. 163
Spare Lift Buses..................................................................................................................... 163
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Guideline No. 17............................ 164
Special Mechanical Equipment.......................................................................................... 165
Technologically Dependent Students.............................................................................. 165
Lift Equipment Failure........................................................................................................... 166
Mobility Aid Equipment Repairs......................................................................................... 167
Student Transfer to A Spare Lift Bus................................................................................ 167
Lift Power or Other Bus Equipment Failure.................................................................... 167
Vehicle Lift Emergency Operation..................................................................................... 168
Wheelchair Designs Most Compatible with the Lift Bus.............................................. 168
Driver Team Lift Training and Proficiency....................................................................... 169
Driver Team Lift Retraining.................................................................................................. 169
Summary.................................................................................................................................. 170
Additional Resources........................................................................................................... 170

Chapter Five:
Special Needs Transportation Policy

Student Transportation Policy........................................................................................... 172
Americans with Disabilities Act.......................................................................................... 172
The Individual with Disabilities Education Act (PL 101-476)....................................... 172
Special Needs Program Accessibility............................................................................... 173
Special Needs Transportation Service Accessibility.................................................... 173
District Transportation Mission Statement...................................................................... 174
Providing Safe and Efficient Pupil Transportation........................................................ 174
A Sample Transportation Mission Statement for Students with Disabilities.......... 175
A Sample District Profile Statement.................................................................................. 175
School Board Pupil Transportation Policy..................................................................... 176
The District Superintendent and School Transportation Policy............................... 176
The Director of Pupil Transportation................................................................................ 177
Planning, Budgeting and Forecasting Pupil Transportation..................................... 177
School Site Selection and Facility Planning................................................................... 177
Pupil Transportation Personnel Recruitment................................................................. 177
Special Needs Driver Recruitment.................................................................................... 177
Special Needs Driver Assistant Recruitment.................................................................. 178
Bus Personnel Instruction................................................................................................... 178
Supervision of School Bus Personnel............................................................................. 178
Routing and Scheduling School Buses.......................................................................... 178
Hazardous Route Committees........................................................................................... 178
Overlapping School Building Attendance Areas........................................................... 179
Pupil Transportation Safety Education............................................................................ 179
Safe Bus Riding and Pedestrian Behavior...................................................................... 180
School Bus Accident Investigation and Reporting....................................................... 181
Pupil Transportation Record Keeping and Service Documentation........................ 181
Annual Evaluation of the Pupil Transportation System............................................... 181
Monitoring School Loading Zone Safety......................................................................... 182
School Bus Driver or Assistant's Handbook.................................................................. 183
Safety Education.................................................................................................................... 183
Drug and Alcohol Testing.................................................................................................... 183
Special Education Transportation Policy and Procedures........................................ 184
Private Transportation Reimbursement........................................................................... 184
Transported without Undue Risk...................................................................................... 185
Length of Bus Ride................................................................................................................ 185
Time of Arrival at Home Pickup.......................................................................................... 185
Time of Arrival at Caregiver Pickup Location................................................................. 185
Time of Drop-Off at Home.................................................................................................... 186
Time of Drop-Off at Caregiver............................................................................................. 186
Fellow Special Needs Bus Passengers........................................................................... 186
Special Needs Bus Routes.................................................................................................. 187
Age-Appropriate Routes...................................................................................................... 187
Special Education Program-Specific Routes................................................................. 187
Circular Routes....................................................................................................................... 187
Feeder Routes........................................................................................................................ 187
Shuttle Routes........................................................................................................................ 188
Supplementary Staff and Equipment on the Regular Bus.......................................... 188
Medically Fragile or Technology Dependent Students................................................ 188
Assistive and Adaptive Equipment................................................................................... 188
Medical Considerations in Special Needs Transportation.......................................... 189
Air Conditioning (Cooling, Heating Humidity Control)................................................. 189
Specialized Bus Equipment Requirements.................................................................... 189
Technology Dependent Students With Disabilities...................................................... 189
Additional Staff on Board the Special Needs Bus......................................................... 190
Special Education Building Personnel............................................................................ 190
Building Principals, Vice-Principals and Other Supervisors...................................... 190
Other Special Needs Bus Personnel................................................................................ 190
Campus Security, School District Police, Local Law Enforcement.......................... 190
Access to Extracurricular Activities.................................................................................. 190
Special Needs Transportation Cycle................................................................................ 191
Selecting the transportation mode.................................................................................... 191
Preparing for personal travel.............................................................................................. 191
Proceeding to the pickup site............................................................................................. 191
Boarding the school vehicle............................................................................................... 192
Selecting Seating................................................................................................................... 192
Securing Seating and Seat Belts....................................................................................... 192
Passenger Interactions........................................................................................................ 192
Passenger Behavior.............................................................................................................. 192
Leaving the School Bus....................................................................................................... 193
Mobility to the Site.................................................................................................................. 193
IEP Committee Special Needs Transportation Decisions........................................... 193
When No One Is At Home..................................................................................................... 193
Emergency Drop-Off Procedures...................................................................................... 193
Parental No-Show Policy..................................................................................................... 193
Student Illness and Special Needs Transportation...................................................... 194
Transportation Personnel Attending IEP/Annual Review Meetings......................... 194
Bus, Building and Special Education Program Discipline Procedures.................. 194
A Continuum of Special Needs Transportation Services............................................ 194
Personal Attendants on the Special Needs Bus............................................................ 195
Bus Two-Way Radio or Cellular Phone Use................................................................... 195
Bus Emergency Evacuation............................................................................................... 195
Substitute Special Needs Drivers or Assistants............................................................ 195
Transporting Students to Child Care Facilities.............................................................. 196
Divorced or Estranged Parental Rights........................................................................... 196
Transporting Homeless Special Needs Students......................................................... 197
Special Education Transportation Coordinator............................................................. 198
Provide District-Wide Special Education Transportation Services.......................... 198
Supervise Personnel Assigned to Special Needs Bus Routes................................. 198
Monitor Bus Transportation Services to All Students with Special Needs............ 198
Attend IEP Committees......................................................................................................... 198
Consider or Recommend Bus Privilege Suspension.................................................. 198
Arrange Private Transportation Contracts with Parents............................................. 198
Arrange For Other Transportation Alternatives............................................................. 198
Emergency Medical Information........................................................................................ 198
Authorization to Receive Form........................................................................................... 199
Special Education Route Manager.................................................................................... 199
Receiving Special Needs Transportation Service Requests..................................... 199
Assigning Students to Particular Special Needs Buses............................................. 199
Logging Students on Correct Bus Route Sheets......................................................... 200
Tracking the Length Of Each Student's AM or PM Ride.............................................. 200
Checking and Validating Appropriate Arrival or Departure Times............................ 200
Maintaining Access to Special Needs Route Sheets and Seating Charts.............. 200
Maintaining Current and Accurate Bus Route Sheets................................................. 200
Maintaining Special Education State Route Reports................................................... 200
Special Needs School Bus Routing.................................................................................. 200
Pupil's Residence Location and Alternate Caregiver Locations............................... 200
Special Needs Pupil Age and Maturity............................................................................. 200
Road Type and Conditions In Residential or Caregiver Areas.................................. 201
Standards of Service Desired............................................................................................. 201
Funds Available For Transportation Service.................................................................. 201
Establishing New Special Needs Bus Routes............................................................... 201
General Safety Factors of All Special Needs Routes.................................................... 201
Visibility of Approaching Motorists................................................................................... 201
Walking Distance to the Bus Stop In Relation to the Age of the Pupil..................... 201
Walking Route Safety to and From the Bus Stop.......................................................... 201
Reviewing Special Needs Bus Routes............................................................................. 201
Circular School Bus Routes............................................................................................... 202
Feeder School Bus Routes................................................................................................. 202
Fixed Route System.............................................................................................................. 202
Shuttle Routes........................................................................................................................ 202
Bus Stops Should Be Authorized by School Administration.................................... 202
Duplication of Route Miles & Deadheading Avoided................................................... 202
Multiple Routes with the Same Bus When Possible..................................................... 203
Length of Travel Time for Special Needs Students...................................................... 203
Designated Walking Distances.......................................................................................... 204
Hazardous Route Committees........................................................................................... 204
Hazardous Pedestrian Routes or Known Traffic Safety Factors.............................. 204
Hazardous Pedestrian Route Determination.................................................................. 204
Establish Walking Distance Areas for Individual School Buildings......................... 205
Bus Routes Arranged According to Geographic Areas.............................................. 205
Special Needs Bus Stops.................................................................................................... 205
Curb-to-Curb Service............................................................................................................ 206
Potentially Dangerous Pickups or Dropoffs................................................................... 206
Private Driveway Issues....................................................................................................... 206
Door-to-Door Service............................................................................................................ 207
Gate-to-Gate Service............................................................................................................. 207
Determining Bus Stop Locations...................................................................................... 208
Bus Routes May Change Every Year Based on Students Served............................ 208
Students with Disabilities May Walk to Bus Stop.......................................................... 208
Buses Do Not Usually Travel Down Cul-de-Sacs......................................................... 208
Backing Any School Bus Is a Safety Threat................................................................... 208
Special Needs Bus Stop Criteria........................................................................................ 209
Activity Busing........................................................................................................................ 209
Field Trips Using Special Needs Bus Service................................................................ 210
Day Care Centers................................................................................................................... 211
After-School Drop-off Sites................................................................................................. 211
School Loading Zones......................................................................................................... 211
School Bus Service in Private Parking Lots................................................................... 212
Gated Access Special Needs Bus Service...................................................................... 213
Special Needs Bus Route Maintenance........................................................................... 213
Special Needs Bus Route Changes.................................................................................. 213
Supplemental Special Needs Routes............................................................................... 214
Supplemental Route Driver Teams................................................................................... 214
Supplemental Route Bus Equipment............................................................................... 214
Supplemental Route Procedures...................................................................................... 214
The Bus Ride Home.............................................................................................................. 215
Summary.................................................................................................................................. 215
Additional Resources........................................................................................................... 216

Chapter Six:
Special Needs Student Bus Behavior Policy

Special Education Student Bus Riders............................................................................ 218
The Driver and Assistant Team.......................................................................................... 218
Principles for Managing Student Bus Behavior............................................................ 219
Principle 1: Nothing Indicates Any Special Needs Student Will Be A Behavior
Management Problem on the Bus..................................................................................... 219
Principle 2: Special Needs Students Show Situational Behaviors........................... 219
Principle 3: Special Needs Students Must Learn to Manage Their Own Behaviors in the School Setting, on the Bus, at Home and in the Community……….219
Students Failing To Manage Their Own Behavior......................................................... 220
Principle 4: The Worst Bus Rules Are Made to be Broken......................................... 220
Principle 5: The Best Bus Rules are Made to be Followed......................................... 220
Principle 6 When Student Bus Behaviors Comply with Positively-Stated Bus Rules, Rewards are Provided the Student by the Bus Rule Enforcers…   221
Principle 7: Rules for Human Behaviors (Including the special Seeds School Bus) Should Be Kept Minimal, Relevant, Meaningful and Positive,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,221
Minimal Bus Rider Rules ..................................................................................................... 221
Relevant Bus Rider Rules ................................................................................................... 221
Meaningful Bus Rider Rules .............................................................................................. 221
Positive Bus Rider Rules .................................................................................................... 222
Typical Special Needs Bus Rider Rules ......................................................................... 222
Establishing Enforceable Bus Rider Rules .................................................................... 223
When Students Break a Bus Rule .................................................................................... 223
Rules for Students Are Rules for All ................................................................................ 223
Bus Rules Designed for Each Passenger ...................................................................... 224
Gear the Bus Rule to the Individual Student................................................................... 224
The Student Who Responds Only to Authority ............................................................. 224
The student Who Responds to Reason .......................................................................... 224
The Student who Responds Only to What You Do and Not What You Say .......... 224
No Compromise on Any Rule Dealing with Passenger Safety.................................. 224
Changing Bus Rider Rules.................................................................................................. 225
No Rules Fit All Bus Situations.......................................................................................... 225
The Fewer Bus Rider Rules the Better............................................................................. 225
Effective Bus Rider Rules Have a Life of Their Own..................................................... 226
Behavior Management Plans (BMPs)............................................................................... 226
Procedures for Applying BMPs to Students................................................................... 226
Driver Teams Not Reporting Inappropriate Student Bus Behavior.......................... 228
Driver Teams Reporting to School Personnel............................................................... 228
Transportation Supervisors................................................................................................ 228
School Secretaries................................................................................................................ 228
Building Principal................................................................................................................... 228
Special Education Teacher................................................................................................. 228
Special Education Instructional Assistant...................................................................... 228
Members of the Special Education IEP committee....................................................... 228
Parents...................................................................................................................................... 229
Building Principal Driver Team Support.......................................................................... 229
Local IEP Committee Decision to Suspend Bus Privilege.......................................... 229
Bus Behavior Incident Reports.......................................................................................... 230
Student Code of Conduct Handbooks............................................................................. 230
Crime Prevention and Awareness for Special Needs Bus Personnel..................... 230
School Campus Police or Security................................................................................... 230
School Bus Suspension...................................................................................................... 232
Ten Day per School Year Suspension Rule.................................................................... 232
Using Public Transit at School District Expense........................................................... 233
Parent Private Contracting.................................................................................................. 233
Parent or Guardian Responsibilities................................................................................. 233
Transporting School Related/Non-Related Items.......................................................... 234
Prohibited Items..................................................................................................................... 234
School-Related Items............................................................................................................ 234
Pupil Bus Incident Reports................................................................................................. 235
Physical Restraint of Special Needs Student Riders................................................... 235
Video Camera or Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) Use Policy................................ 236
Video Tape Viewing............................................................................................................... 236
Video Tape Handling/Recycling......................................................................................... 236
Video Camera Housings on Special Needs Buses....................................................... 237
Legal Liability Issues............................................................................................................. 237
Summary.................................................................................................................................. 237
Additional Resources........................................................................................................... 238

Chapter Seven:
Transporting Special Needs Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers

Introduction to Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers.................................................... 240
Who Rides and Who Stays Home..................................................................................... 240
Federal Law for Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers With Disabilities................... 240
Some Important Definitions................................................................................................ 241
Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities............................................................................. 241
45 C. F. R. Part 1305 Sec. 1305.2 Definitions.................................................................. 241
Developmentally Delayed................................................................................................... 242
Early Intervention Services for the Developmentally Delayed.................................. 242
Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP).............................................................................. 242
IFSP Service Coordinator................................................................................................... 243
Hospital-Based Infant Programs....................................................................................... 243
Family-Centered Infant and Toddler Programs............................................................. 244
Home-Based Programs....................................................................................................... 244
Transporting Mothers with Infants................................................................................... 245
Transporting Teenage Parents and Their Special Needs Infants............................ 245
Low-Birth Weight Babies.................................................................................................... 246
Transporting Pregnant Student Teenagers................................................................... 246
Child Safety Seats for Low Birth Weight Infants........................................................... 247
Newborns with Special Needs.......................................................................................... 247
Child Safety Seat Infant Positioning................................................................................ 248
Car Beds on the Special Needs Bus................................................................................ 249
Infant Car Beds...................................................................................................................... 250
Convertible Safety Seat....................................................................................................... 251
Built-In Toddler Safety Seat................................................................................................ 251
Safety Vest.............................................................................................................................. 251
Harnesses & Shelf Systems in Child Safety Seats...................................................... 252
3-Point Harnesses................................................................................................................ 252
5-Point Harnesses................................................................................................................ 252
Harness/shield Systems..................................................................................................... 252
Rear-Facing Seats................................................................................................................ 252
Forward-Facing Seats......................................................................................................... 253
Harness Only.......................................................................................................................... 253
T-Shaped Shield.................................................................................................................... 253
Shelf-Type Shield.................................................................................................................. 254
Newborn Safety and Riding Comfort............................................................................... 254
Safety Belt Anchor Seats Firmly........................................................................................ 254
Convertible Child Safety Seats for Infants..................................................................... 255
Securing the Convertible Seat........................................................................................... 255
In the rear-facing position................................................................................................... 255
In the front-facing position................................................................................................. 256
Compartmentalization for Special Needs Infants......................................................... 256
Special Needs Bus Child Safety Seat Management Issues....................................... 256
One Child Safety Seat-Many Occupants -or-
Many Child Safety Seats for the Same Infant................................................................. 257
Booster Seats........................................................................................................................ 258
Securing the Booster Seat................................................................................................. 258
Safety Belts and Booster Seats for Toddlers................................................................ 259
Toddlers on the Special Needs Bus................................................................................ 259
Child Safety Seats and the Special Needs Toddler..................................................... 260
Preschoolers on the Special Needs Bus........................................................................ 260
Toddlers and Additional Belting/Restraints--Vests & Harnesses............................ 262
Child Safety Seat Maintenance.......................................................................................... 262
Cleaning a Child Safety Seat.............................................................................................. 262
Parental Attitudes About Child Safety Seats--Part of the Problem.......................... 263
Transporting Professional Staff........................................................................................ 264
Transporting Parents on the Special Needs Bus......................................................... 265
Driver Team and Family Intervention Home Visits....................................................... 266
Remember FERPA................................................................................................................ 266
Maintain Professional Reserve.......................................................................................... 266
Health Care Services............................................................................................................ 266
Transporting Special Needs Students with Nursing Personnel.............................. 267
Nutrition Services on the Special Needs Bus?............................................................. 267
Occupational Therapy......................................................................................................... 268
Physical Therapy for Infants, Toddlers & Preschoolers............................................. 269
Purchasing Guidelines for Special Needs Child Safety Seats.................................. 270
Common Mistakes in the Use of Child Restraints........................................................ 271
Using a Child Care Seat without Seat Belts................................................................... 271
Failing to Use Locking Clips on Child Safety Seat....................................................... 271
Using the Child Care Seat Harness Incorrectly............................................................ 271
Reclining a Child Safety Seat............................................................................................. 272
Threading Harness or Tether Straps Incorrectly.......................................................... 272
Failing to Double Loop Harness Straps.......................................................................... 272
Failing to Secure The Care Seat Crotch Strap.............................................................. 272
Letting Children Ride Unrestrained................................................................................. 273
Using an Unapproved Child Care Seat........................................................................... 273
Modifying a Child Car Seat................................................................................................. 273
Child Safety Seat Replacement and Disposal............................................................... 273
Classroom-Based Infant and Toddler Programs.......................................................... 273
Preschool-Based Special Needs Programs.................................................................. 274
Graduating From Kindergarten: Transition Services.................................................. 274
Summary................................................................................................................................. 275
Additional Resources.......................................................................................................... 276